What do you see as the single most important reason for the witch craze?

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Study on infants of depressed

Infants as young as 3 months can tell when
their mothers are sad, and they don’t like it at all.

Psychologists filmed 24 3-month-old infants
and their mothers during three-minute intervals of normal interaction and
three-minute intervals during which the mothers acted as though they were
depressed.  The mothers were asked to
imagine how they felt on days when they were tired or down, not to look at
their baby, speak in a monotone voice, keep their face expressionless and
minimize contact with their babies.

One group of infants and mothers started
with depressed interactions and then switched to normal interactions.  The second group switched from normal to depressed
interactions, and a third group interacted normally during both 3-minute

Results showed that when mothers were
depressed, babies spent half their time protesting, with negative facial
expressions, crying, fussing and arching their backs, eyebrows narrowed and
looking toward their mothers.  Even when
the mothers began to behave normally, the babies’ negative attitudes persisted.

In contrast, babies whose mothers acted
normally spent a large portion of the time at play with smiling faces.  Only rarely did they protest or show signs of

The researchers believe that when a mother
is genuinely depressed, an infant’s emotional and social development can be

 Name and describe the experimental
groups and control group:

Name the independent variable:


How is it operationalized or defined ( what
behaviors did the researchers vary in the mothers) :

What were the infant behaviors that
defined the dependent variable for the experimental groups:

and control group:


One inference:

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