responses on post

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I waan you to do two responses for the following posts

the responses at least 4 lines and have references

post 1 need 1 response

Public health defined as the interventions and programs which improve the well-being of the population or community and it is achieved by collective actions that prepared by the society. The focus of public health is on prevention of diseases, prolonging life and promoting health. The field of public health is multifaceted that includes varieties of activities such as addressing chronic diseases, food safety, and infectious disease outbreak (Masood & Kothari, 2016). The effectiveness of an intervention in order to achieve an outcome the will create a big change in the health of population or community known as evidence (Health, n.d). There is two type of evidence explicit and implicit knowledge. The explicit comes from articulated theories by scientific method and is effective at controlling systematic errors. The implicit come from a judgment of individual with experience in the field (Masood & Kothari, 2016).

Many studies emphasized the importance of evidence in public health practice. In the last years, there was a big argument about the relationship between childhood vaccinations and the development of autism. This topic becomes a significant public health issue that causes fear in the communities (Taylor, Swerdfeger & Eslick, 2014). In my point of view there is no relationship between vaccinations and autism but as a mother, I understood the fear that some parents have. However, this fear is not supported by reliable sources and some of the idea that parents had come from other parents how to think there is a link between the two.

The researcher used several types of studies to identify if there is a link between the two. One method that they used is the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) of five case-control and five cohort studies. For the type overall pooled odds ratio was calculated and then they divided the data and made a subgroup to examine the risk of having autism or ASD after MMR, Hg. The result confirms that there is no evidence between vaccination and autism ( Taylor, Swerdfeger & Eslick, 2014).


The increase of humanitarian emergencies caused an increased mortality and notably because of communicable diseases. One example of that issue is in Syria, the war there destroyed the health care system, hospitals, and immunization program that make the population vulnerable to communicable diseases. Since the conflict 1.8 million children born and more than 50% are unvaccinated. Also, Poliomyelitis virus which lives in sewage, contaminated food and water were found in Syria. According to World Health Organization over 7,600 Syrians are infected. To manage this issue, the biggest immunization campaign was established, over 2.7 million Syrian children and 23 million in neighboring countries have the vaccine (Sharara & Kamj, 2014).

post 2 need 1 response

The biggest threats of infectious disease don’t come from dead or decaying bodies in the water or a large extent spoiled food. They involve the failure of basic public-health services: sewage disposal and water purification.

A safe, reliable, affordable, and easily accessible water supply is essential for good health. Yet, for several decades, about a billion people in developing countries have not had a safe and sustainable water supply. It has been estimated that a minimum of 7.5 litres of water per person per day is required in the home for drinking, preparing food, and personal hygiene, the most basic requirements for water; at least 50 litres per person per day is needed to ensure all personal hygiene, food hygiene, domestic cleaning, and laundry needs. Inadequacies in water supply affect health adversely both directly and indirectly. An inadequate water supply also prevents good sanitation and hygiene. Consequently, improvements in various aspects of water supply represent important opportunities to enhance public health.

The poor are more susceptible to ill-health than are the well-off. They lack adequate supplies of safe water and safe methods of disposing of their wastes. Lack of water and sanitation create ideal conditions under which faecal oral diseases thrive. Study after study has shown that where a community improves its water supply, hygiene and/or sanitation then health improves. For example, diarrhea can be reduced by 26% when basic water, hygiene and sanitation are supplied. Yet statistics tell a terrible story. Forty percent of the world’s 6 billion people have no acceptable means of sanitation, and more than 1 billion people draw their water from unsafe sources. The World Health Organization says diarrhoeal diseases remain a leading cause of illness and death in the developing world. Every year, about 2.2 million people die from diarrhoea; 90% of these deaths are among children, mostly in developing countries. A significant number of deaths are due to a single type of bacteria, Shigella, which causes dysentery or bloody diarrhoea. It is readily controlled by improving hygiene, water supply and sanitation. Although no vaccine exists and antibiotics may be inaccessible to many people, an effective intervention is available. The simple act of washing hands with soap and water reduces Shigella and other types of diarrhoea by up to 35%.

The situation in Yemen is teetering on the verge of disaster. The water, sanitation and health systems have all but collapsed. Over 27 million Yemenis are staring at an unforgiving humanitarian catastrophe. The biggest victims of this man-made tragedy are Yemen’s most vulnerable population – its children. With barely functional water treatment plants, sewage and uncollected garbage is gathering in residential areas and contaminating water sources. Two thirds of Yemen’s population have no access to safe drinking water. Half of the country’s health facilities aren’t working, and medical staff haven’t been paid for over 8 months. Yemen’s weakened health system is completely overwhelmed by the scale of the cholera emergency.

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