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Please Reply to the following 2 Discussion posts:
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DISCUSSION POST # 1 Betsy
33 Year Old Female Suffering from Amenorrhea and Infertility
Amenorrhea and Infertility
The patient in question is suffering from amenorrhea and infertility, and according to Torbati et al. (2017), this condition can cause infertility in women based on a study conducted among female monkeys. It is critical to note that the menstrual cycle remains a vital sign, thereby providing insight into hormonal imbalance as well as pregnancy.
Symptoms with PCOS
PCOS stands for polycystic ovary syndrome. Witchel et al. (2019) state that depending on the diagnostic criteria, 6% to 20% of reproductive women become affected by the condition. Some symptoms include but are not limited to ovarian dysfunction that leads to excessive ovarian and/or adrenal androgen secretion.
Metformin and it Contribution to treatment
The long-term use of metformin in the treatment of women with PCOS can result in significant improvement after the first year with weight loss, an increase in menstrual regularity, and an improvement in androgen profile. According to Jensterle et al. (2020), the long-term use of metformin can lead to a decrease in metabolic risk.
Progesterone and Treatment
In the case of a patient with PCOS they are obese, progesterone can aid in increasing the metabolic rate, thereby aiding in weight loss. Ionescu et al. (2018) states that progesterone-based oral contraceptive therapy is efficacious but there are some women that fail to respond to such forms of treatment. Therefore it is postulated that lifestyle changes are the primary therapy for obese women with PCOS.
Infertility and PCOS
While PCOS remains one of the most common but treatable causes of infertility in women, such women with PCOS experience hormonal imbalances, thereby interfering with the overall growth and release of eggs from the ovaries. Such cases show how infertility is a symptom of PCOS.
DISCUSSION POST # 2 Helena
Pathogen of Trichimonas Viginosis and It’s Proliferation
The pathogen of Trichimonas vaginosis is Trichomonas vaginalis (T. Vaginalis), a protozoan parasite. It is a primitive eukaryotic organism. The life cycle of T. vaginalis is poorly understood, but it is known to lack a cystic stage and only exist as a trophozoite (Beri et al., 2020). In female, the incubation period of T. vaginalis is five to twenty-eight days (Schumann & Plasner, 2021). It is transmitted primary via sexual intercourse, and occasionally via fomites. It multiplies by longitudinal binary fission.
Male Partner Treatment & How to Target the Urethral Canal by Metronidazole
According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ([CDC], 2022), a single dose of metronidazole 2 g PO is recommended for male partner. Metronidazole is cytotoxic and inhibit protein synthesis by interacting with DNA, resulting in cell death. Metronidazole gel may target the urethral tract without causing side effects in gastrointestinal tract. However, it cannot reach therapeutic levels, so it is not recommended.
Pathogenesis of Chlamydia Infection
Trichimonas vaginosis may increase the risks of other sexually transmitted co-infection because it causes genital inflammation and epithelia injuries, resulting in providing preferable environment of other infectious microbes.
Chlamydia trachomatis bacterium is the pathogen of Chlamydia (Mohseni et al., 2019). This bacterium targets epithelial cells of endocervix and female upper genital tract, conjunctiva, urethra, and rectum in both genders. Chlamydia has two developmental stages, elementary body (EB) and the reticulate body (RB). The EB are infectious particles and the RB is the reproductive form. The EB is metabolically inactive, but it is taken up by host cells. The EB after taken up by the host cells, will differentiate into the metabolically active RB. The RB will replicate and form new EB by using host energy sources and amino acids, and the new EB can infect additional cells. This bacterium can be transmitted via direct contact with infectious tissues, such as vaginal, oral, and anal sex. This also can be transmitted from an infected mother to the newborn baby during childbirth.
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