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1-The aim of this experiment is to calculate the coefficient of friction (Cf) by using the fluid Friction Apparatus which is shows flow and losses in different pipes, fittings and valves. First, we switch on the electricity source than open the main switch of the device. After that, make sure that all valves are closed except for the valve number 3 which has a diameter of 16.5 mm. Next, take the reading of the difference between two heights for different flow rate but, constant volume. After doing the calculation we know that there are three main methods to calculate the coefficient of friction which are Darcy- Weisbach equation, Moody’s chart and empirical relation.

2–The gray body has emissivity less than 1, where the emissivity of the black body is equal to 1. In radiation, energy is carried by the electromagnetic waves emitted by every object. A body at a temperature above absolute zero emits radiation in all directions over a wide range of wavelength. the amount of radiation from the surface depends on the material of the body and nature of its surface. At a specified temperature and wavelength, a black body emits more radiation energy than the real one. The black body emits radiation energy uniformly in all direction.

3-The packing materials that used in the packed bed are varies in size and shape. They can be metal, graphite, plastic, clay, porcelain or ceramic. Where the beds are stacked, dumped or randomly packed, to meet the separation requirements of the application. The large surface area that provide by packed beds gives a good contact between liquid and vapor and increases the reaction. In addition, the relationship between Friction Factor and Reynold’s number is inversely proportional. That means when the Reynold’s number increases, the Friction Factor will decrease or vice versa.

4-The Centrifugal pump is used to induce flow or raise pressure of a liquid. It designed with respect to the number of suctions, number of impellers and the output. This pump is used for different applications including pressure boosting, wastewater, water supply, heating and cooling distribution and other industrial applications. The centrifugal pump is used due to their best rate of efficiency. In addition, therelationship among Discharge, Output Power, Efficiency and Total Head is directly proportional. That means when the Discharge increases, all of the Output Power, Efficiency and Total Head are increasing as well or vice versa.

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