Here is a recap of the four tests:
- The truthfulness of premises (Are the reasons given true?)
- Logical strength (Is the relationship between the reason and the claim logical?)
- Relevance (Is the reason relevant to the claim?)
- Non-circularity (Is the claim merely a restatement of the reason?
Example: Blam-O bubble gum is great because it is awesome stuff.
Argument broken down:
Premise/Reason: (Because) it is awesome stuff.
Conclusion/Claim: Blam-O bubble gum is great.
Evaluation/ Expected Response:
This is not a sound argument. This argument fails the test of non-circularity. In essence, the premise and conclusion are the same.
- Vegetarianism must be unhealthy since there are so many fast food burger places around.
- The New York Yankees have the best team in baseball because they have the highest-paid players.
- Lawyer to the jury: “My client can’t be guilty of stealing cars. He is a huge animal lover and rescues stray dogs.”
- Whales are mammals. Mammals nurse their young. Therefore, whales nurse their young.
- Free trade is good for our country. It allows products to flow between here and other countries. The free flow of goods is good for our country.
Answer the questions in Word format.