BIO 114 Harold Washington College Counting Calories Discussion

Are you stressed by poor grades and tight deadlines? We have your back. We can do this or a different assignment for you at an affordable price. Use writing services to score better and meet your deadlines.

Order a Similar Paper Order a Different Paper

Discussion 6 Counting Calories

Using the information that you have learned in the video, the NYT article, current chapter, and earlier in Chapter 3, address the following in your main post (~500 words):

1. What class of biological molecules does sugar belong to? 

2. What are the most common types of sugars in our diet?  

3. How do sugar molecules provide us with energy? What is the role of sugar in human evolution? 

4. What are the dangers of consuming excess sugar?

5. In terms of sugar consumption, what are potential dangers of processed foods and low-fat foods? 

6. What other molecules (besides sugars) serve as a source of energy for our bodies? 

7. Research suggests that obtaining (or keeping) a healthy weight is much more complex than just reducing caloric intake and exercising. Based on the information presented in the article, categorize different factors in three groups:  

a. Factors contributing to weight gain 

b. Factors contributing to weight loss 

c. Factors not associated with either with weight loss or weight gain 

8. Analyze your diet and life-style and make specific recommendations for yourself on how to achieve (or maintain) healthy weight.

Respond with 3-5 sentence to 2 of your fellow classmates and post your comments and reactions as appropriate. 

I have one student post, I will post the other student post once they post.

Student 1 Post Adam 

  • Sugar belongs to the carbohydrate class of biological molecules.
  • The most common sugars in our diet are simple sugars, and more specifically glucose. 
  • When food is ingested, digestive enzymes break down sugars for our bodies to use. After this initial breakdown, sugars are broken down even further, through a process called glycolysis. After glycolysis, sugars are taken to the mitochondria inside cells. Once inside the mitochondria, sugars, along with other foods, are converted into ATP which is the power our cells use to operate (Alberts, Johnson, Lewis, et al., 2002). Humans evolved to like sugar because of its two-fold nature in our bodies: sugar can be used immediately or stored for later use. This aspect of sugar can be very important in times when food is scarce, which during the time of early humans (and in some cases, now) was not uncommon. Instead of just eating for whatever their current needs were, early humans could eat more food than necessary and effectively store the excess as fat for later (Lieberman, 2012). 
  • There are many negative health effects associated with the overconsumption of sugar. Firstly, the body’s ability to store excess sugar as fat can lead to obesity when taken to high levels. The paradox of the body’s relationship with sugar is that the human ability to store excess energy can go too far. Our evolved bodies are not adapted to modern excesses of food that exist for many, so the body continues to store fat from excess sugar and calories, even when it is not in our best interest. Another very common issue with the consumption of excess sugar is type 2 diabetes. Individuals who develop type 2 diabetes have an inability to normally regulate their blood sugar via insulin (National Institutes of Health, n.d.). Type 2 diabetes is a deadly disease that claims many lives, and unfortunately, excess sugar consumption is one of its primary causes. Excess sugar consumption can also lead to dental issues. Sugar molecules are the main source of food for bacteria, so when sugar builds up in the mouth, a warm and moist environment, bacteria have everything they need to thrive (Gupta et al., 2013). 
  • Processed foods and low-fat foods are notorious for having added sugar. Many food producers add sugar to these products to make them palatable while still having a relatively low-calorie count. This can be deceiving, especially regarding low-fat foods. Consumers often look to these foods as a healthier option, however, they can be packed with sugar to offset the loss of taste from having little to no fat. 
  • In addition to sugar, the body can also use proteins and lipids for energy. While sugar is the body’s preferred source of fuel, proteins and lipids will also provide energy under the right circumstances. If sugar is not available but protein is, protein can be converted into glucose via a process called gluconeogenesis. Certain amino acids from proteins can be converted into glucose when they are in abundance, or if the body has no glucose to burn (Berg, Tymoczko, & Stryer, 2002). Lipids can also be used for fuel in the right conditions. When cells are experiencing aerobic cellular respiration, they can use lipids as a source of energy (Bartee, 2016).
  • Despite the commonly repeated narrative of “calories in versus calories out”, there are many factors that contribute to one’s weight. Caloric intake and expenditure certainly play a major role in weight, but the type of calories matter as well. A major reason for this is how the body responds to certain calories with insulin. Insulin, which is sometimes referred to as the “storage hormone”, acts as a funnel to the body’s fat stores. When insulin is high, the funnel is wide at the bottom and more energy goes into storage (fat cells). When insulin is low, the funnel is much more narrow and not as much goes through. One of the most significant influencers to insulin levels is sugar and carbohydrate intake. Person A and person B can take in the same amount of calories each day, but if person A has a higher percentage of foods that spike insulin, they will likely store more fat than person B (Hardy, Czech, & Corvera, 2012). Genetics plays a role in body weight as well. Some individuals are genetically predisposed to store more fat than others. This may seem like luck of the draw, but it is actually evolutionarily based. People whose ancestors are from cold environments or places where food was scarce will likely store more energy as fat than those whose ancestors are from warm environments with plentiful food. This may not seem useful to modern people with access to heating, air conditioning, etc., however, it is a massive evolutionary advantage (Malomo & Ntlholang, 2018). Physical activity and age also play a significant role in weight. More active people are more likely to burn calories, and younger people will likely burn more calories than older people. 
  • Although I used to be overweight, I have been able to obtain and maintain a healthy weight for the past five years. I do this through a balanced diet and regular exercise. I try to keep my carbohydrate intake reasonable (under 200 grams per day) and I avoid simple sugars unless I am treating myself. I try to eat complex, fibrous carbohydrates such as green vegetables daily, and I also have a regular intake of healthy fats and proteins. I exercise three to four days per week, and I also have a job that keeps me on my feet. 


The following references provide an opportunity to further study this week’s topics:

  here is the second studentStudent 2 Post(1) Sugar belongs to carbohydrate(2) Common types of sugar are simple sugar that are found in fruits, honey, etc…There is also glucose as well. (3) When digesting food into our system; the sugar breaks down and then the sugar molecules travel through our bloodstream then to our body cells providing us with energy. The role of sugar in human evolution is that sugar is very important in our system because not only does it produce energy but it is stored so our body can use later when it does run out of energy.(4) The danger of consuming too much sugar can lead to bad outcomes such as; heart disease, obesity, high blood pressure and diabetes. All of these outcomes are extremely bad because for one a heart disease can lead to heart attacks, chest pain, or strokes due to blood vessels being blocked. Second, there are two  types of diabetes types, one and two. Type two diabetes is extremely bad because they can not produce insulin properly and it affects the ‘tiny blood vessels in your kidneys, nerves, and eyes.’  Third, obesity, it’s very dangerous that one is consuming a lot of sugar and they start to exceed their weight. This can lead to having more bad outcomes such as higher risk for diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease, People who are overweight can hardly breathe, they consume more sugar that can lead to storing more sugar which is bad. (5) Processed food can have added sugar which of course makes the food taste better and that calls people attention and will surely buy more of it. This can possibly be unhealthy if more sugar is being added to our processed food. “Heavily processed foods are often high in sugar, fat and empty calories. Consuming lots of these foods has long been linked to an increased risk of a wide variety of health problems” (6) Besides sugar serving as a source of energy, there are other molecules that can serve as a source of energy for our bodies such as proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. Sugar is our main source to converting energy but these other factors can work as well (7) A. Calories matter a lot because not only does it depend on how many calories there are but the type of calories we intake. Most importantly is the type of calories due to how our body is taking them. For one if there is too much insulin then there is too much energy stored and if there is very little of insulin then there is very little energy being stored. Too much energy being stored is really mostly fat cells. B. “Family history and genes. Overweight and obesity tend to run in families, suggesting that genes may play a role.” Not only does it suggest continuing the pattern of gain but as well as losing weight. People’s history has a huge impact because the genes that are being passed on can luck be good such as how there is a role being played that people can easily lose weight. For one they are people who have a good metabolism. C. Factors that do not associate with either weight loss or weight gain is how active a person is in their daily life and as well as age being a huge factor. A young kid can have more energy than an adult and the young kid is more physically active. Some adults are older and tired so they do not have the same energy compared to a young kid. (8) When I was younger I used to be overweight and when I started high school I started to lose a bit of weight due to joining in after school programs. Most of these after school programs I will be active a lot but then I would consume a lot of junk food. Once I started college I started to eat less but would be active during the day which was bad because I would get headaches or feel really tired due to having no energy. Then, when I started working there was a competition called “Biggest Loser” each person had to give money and whoever lost the most weight in four months would receive the money. So, I won the competition and lost ten pounds. It was very hard to lose weight due to my family consuming so much bread and meat. I had joined the gym and would exercise for at least two hours everyday, but Saturdays and Sundays. Now, I am eating a good breakfast that stusatin my hunger till lunch or I would eat small snacks till I have dinner. I have tried to stop eating bread and I have been drinking lots of water.

We offer CUSTOM-WRITTEN, CONFIDENTIAL, ORIGINAL, and PRIVATE writing services. Kindly click on the ORDER NOW button to receive an A++ paper from our masters- and PhD writers.

Get a 10% discount on your order using the following coupon code SAVE10

Order a Similar Paper Order a Different Paper