answer the questions and response to the posts

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Please answer these questions each one in spirit file please

the first file includes the answers for those questions

1. How do core competencies change between domestic and international response?

2. Discuss the concept of humanitarian aid, provide an example and analyze the political ramifications.

the second file includes the response for these 2 posts

1st post

Humanitarian aid is typically the service delivery of international humanitarian organizations according to principles of impartiality, neutrality and independence in temporary conflict situations, where humanitarians can work without hindrance and follow the humanitarian principles of neutrality, impartiality and humanity. International humanitarian aid accomplishes this through a goal directed behavior which is strongly influenced by the environment and is characterized by division of labor that depends on continuous communication. The intended outputs of the aid are providing life-sustaining services to civilians who are at risk due to violent conflict or natural disaster, where as the unintended outputs are economic and political consequences of aid (Hilhorst, 2010).

Exogenous factors influences aid by shaping its environment. For the humanitarian relief system, one of the most important exogenous factors is the role of political interests in creating the humanitarian crisis. On-going violent conflicts constitute the most politically charged situations, than compared to natural disaster, which makes coordination difficult as the political nature of conflict makes relations between organizations tense, particularly if humanitarian and military organizations are both involved (Seybolt, 2009)

For example, the politicization of humanitarian assistance was clearly evident in Indo-China during the late 1970s and 1980s. After the Vietnamese army overthrew the Cambodian Khmer Rouge regime in 1979, dozens of international NGOs stepped in to help both the people who fled the country and those who remained in Cambodia. But aid workers on the Thai border (where the Khmer Rouge had regrouped) and in Phnom Penh (where Vietnam installed a new government) had radically different views about where limited international resources should be spent. Ultimately, the United Nations stepped in and had to provide relief separately: UNHCR aided Cambodians inside Thailand, while the separately funded United Nations Border Relief Operation assisted the larger population of displaced persons who remained on the Thai-Cambodian border (Seybolt, 2009).

Such disagreements over who deserves supports can complicate the scene, which significantly affects the people who are dire need of assistance. Therefore, factors such as the political interests of the parties in a conflict and the countries that donate money and material to aid efforts majorly influences humanitarian aid systems. Competing political interests exert pressure on the humanitarian aid relief and therefore, aid organizations should always strive to resist the urge to politicize their work and epitomize on the principle of political neutrality.

Seybolt, T. B. (2009). Harmonizing the humanitarian aid network: Adaptive change in a complex system. International Studies Quarterly, 53(4), 1027-1050.

Hilhorst, D., & Jansen, B. J. (2010). Humanitarian space as arena: a perspective on the everyday politics of aid. Development and Change, 41(6), 1117-1139.


2nd post

Humanitarian aid can be defined under four principles: humanity, neutrality, impartiality, and independence. The principles of humanity, neutrality, impartiality were established by the United Nation General Assembly in 1991, and independence was added in 2004. (Rysaback-Smith, 2015)

  • Humanity refers to the provision of aid to all who are in need, wherever the need exists, with the purpose to protect and respect all human beings.
  • Neutrality is the responsibility of aid organizations not to choose sides in a conflict or to favor a particular political, religious or ideological bent.
  • Impartiality demands aid to be given based on need alone and based on any other distinctions including gender, race, nationality, ethnicity, class, political party or religious belief.
  • Independence refers to the requirement that aid organizations are autonomous from any political or military objectives or with those goals in mind.

The European Commission (EC) provides needs-based humanitarian assistance to the people hit by man-made and natural disasters with particular attention to the most vulnerable victims. Aid is given impartially to the affected populations, regardless of their race, ethnic group, religion, gender, age, nationality or political affiliation. The EC through its Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid department (ECHO) promotes the global respect of International Humanitarian Law and of the humanitarian principles. (European Commission, 2017)

International Humanitarian Law (IHL) is a set of rules that seek to limit the effects of armed conflict. It spells out the responsibilities of states and non-state armed groups during an armed conflict. This set of rules defines, among others, the right to receive humanitarian assistance, protection of civilians, including medical and humanitarian workers, and the protection of refugees, prisoners, the wounded and sick. The IHL is based on the 1949 Fourth Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, and the 1977 and 2005 additional protocols. (European Commission, 2017)


Barbera, J. A., Macintyre, A. G., Shaw, G., Seefried, V., Westerman, L., & De Cosmo, S. (2007). Appendix C: Healthcare Emergency Management Competencies: Competency Framework Final Report – U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. Retrieved from…

CARE. (n.d.). Core Humanitarian Competencies Framework Case Study. Retrieved from…

European Commission. (2017). International Humanitarian Law. Retrieved February 20, 2018, from…

Khamarj, K., Hassim, M., Liyanage, P., Mahesh, I., & Samarasekera, D. (2007). Outcome-based approach in development of a disaster management course for healthcare workers. Annals of the Academy of Medicine Singapore, 36(9), 765–769. Retrieved from

Rysaback-Smith, H. (2015). History and Principles of Humanitarian Action. Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine, 15(Suppl 1), 5–7.

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